Some evidence suggests that gradients of neurotrophins are important in regulating final innervation patterns eg 14 iii regulation of cell proliferation neurotrophins have been shown to regulate proliferation of many cell types including neural crest cells cerebellar granule cells and 02a cells eg 10 15 16. Focuses on the roles neurotrophins play in neural crest cell differentiation and in the survival of neural crest derivatives this book correlates in vitro data with results obtained from knock out mice with targeted neurotrophin or receptor deletions to determine the fidelity and usefulness of various experimental culture systems. The p75 neurotrophin receptor p75ntr also known as low affinity nerve growth factor belongs to the tumor necrosis factor family of receptors p75ntr is widely expressed in the nervous system during the development as well as in the neural crest population since p75ntr has been described as ubiquitously expressed and considered as a neural crest marker neural crest cells nccs . 1 neuroblastoma a neural crest tumor in childhood neuroblastoma is an embyonic tumor originating from the sympathoadrenal lineage of neural crest and one of the most common solid tumors found in children bolande 1974its incidence is about 1 8000 births and there is no significant difference among us europe and japan. Neural crest induction begins during gastrulation at the border between the neuroectoderm and ectoderm consistent with the proposed loss of neural crest induction ethanol exposure at gastrulation chick stage 4 causes a rapid decrease in several early neural crest markers and signals including bmp4 wnt6 foxd3 and snai2 flentke et al
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